SLM Measures

Land Degradation

Land degradation is the degradation of land resources (including soils, water, vegetation, and animals) leading to a reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions over a period of time for the beneficiaries of these. Land degradation types are: soil erosion by water, soil erosion by wind, chemical soil deterioration, physical soil deterioration, biological degradation, water degradation.

SLM is the use of land resources, including soils, water, animals and plants, for the production of goods to meet changing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring the long-term productive potential of these resources and the maintenance of their environmental functions.

Rangeland Management

The use of a rotational system to manage livestock grazing on land, which allows veld to rest. Strategically placing fencing and water points reduces pressure on the land

Karoo / Machubeni

The safe and best practiced removal of alien invasive plant species


The safe and best practiced removal of bush encroachment species

Olifants / Machubeni

Low Cost Soil Conservation Works

Continuous line of stone and rock material from the landscape, constructed along a contour to control soil erosion and reduce velocity of surface water flow

Machubeni / Baviaanskloof

Use of plant material or specialised technology along contours or water ways to reduce sheet or gully erosion and trap sediment

Baviaanskloof / Machubeni

Half circle depressions dug shallowly into the soil in a fish-scale configuration to trap water, sediment and seed

Baviaanskloof / Machubeni

Use of dried wood material to protect soil and vegetation from trampling and herbivory


A type of grass planted along contours or within active rill and gully systems to stablise soil and slopes to prevent sheet erosion and improve water infiltration


Cultivation & Other Measures

Uses long-lived woody species like fruit trees or indigenous multi-use species within a matrix of agricultural crops and livestock production within the space of the homestead

Machubeni / Olifants

Sustainable farming practices adapted to the requirements of the chosen crop and local conditions to protect soil from erosion and degradation

Olifants / Machubeni

The planting of endemic vegetation to rehabilitate a degraded system


Collection of rainwater run-off to increase water availability

Olifants / Machubeni

Biodiversity Stewardship and expansion of the protected area network


Improved enabling environment for SLM adoption

Knowledge products: Best Practice Guidelines and rehabilitation manuals.

Knowledge transfer: Project presentations at conferences and forums.
Capacity assessments: Governance capacity assessment scorecards developed, including one for traditional leaders

Capacity development:
  • For beneficiaries: Training in permaculture, integrated farm planning, conservation agriculture, home garden agroforestry
  • For project stakeholders: Training in Systems Thinking
  • Alternative training: Zoom, Adult literacy, financial management training / Environmental education for school children
  • Strengthened governance structures
  • Multistakeholder forums established
  • Farmer community groups
Access to finance
  • Small Grants facility Co-finance
  • SLM Finance platform to be developed
  • NRF funding for students
  • Co-finance from RMB- EWT
Access to tools and technology
  • Provision of gardening tools and materials including seed.
  • Make use of the EWT e-learning centre and the Sewefontein office for community members to have access to internet and computer

Enabling environment for carbon sequestration and access to carbon
markets through rehabilitation of degraded land in Baviaanskloof

Carbon stocks methodology and offsetting

for communal farms has been completed and in the process of being integrated into the SA Carbon Standard.

Carbon baseline assessments

completed and integrated into new methodology.

Carbon offsets project

in development.

SLM Small Grants Facility

The Small Grants component of Outcome 1 is designed to allow partners to collaborate with stakeholder groups at site level to generate funding proposals for innovative SLM practices. Each responsible party is required to support the community groups to identify key SLM interventions that are of relevance at each site, and support the development of technical proposal/s to be funded through small grants. The total amount available for small grants projects is USD 550.000. To date, four small grants projects are underway to the combined value (with co-financing) of USD 382.160 (+- R6.480.667).


Fencing, stock watering and rotational grazing for sustainable range management in the Loxton Commonage

Project Value:
US$ 43089 (Small Grant value required: US$ 25299)

The project will assist emerging farmers on the Loxton commonage to change their internal fencing and watering points. This will allow the implementation of a rotational grazing plan which will allow veld to rest from time to time and thereby improve productivity and resilience over time. Three emerging farmers will participate in this project. The EWT will assist the farmers to draw up a management plan to guide grazing according to the new camp structures.  The project will showcase that improved rotational management can be implemented on commonages and it will serve as a learning example for other commonages and commonage farmers in the Karoo.
Improved rangeland management through rotational grazing.
  1. New fencing acquired to subdivide and reconfigure camps into new units which enhance the options for rotational grazing. This will include the shifting of watering points
  2. Farm 1 – 5,000 m portable electric fencing with energizer, panel and battery case. Three (3) waterpoint interventions with associated piping. Note: The grazing plan for this farm will make use of an electric fence that can be moved due to the smaller size of the farm
  3. Farm 2 – 3,680 m wire fencing and four (4) watering points and associated piping
  4. Farm 3 – 6,330 m wire fencing and three (3) watering points and associated piping
  5. Three (3) grazing management plans
  6. Extension and monitoring services until 2022
  7. Three (3) GEF5 Sustainable Land Management gate signs
  8. Promotion of project and facilitation of one learning exchange with other commonage farmers


Mountain bike trails for improved sustainable land management (SLM) through ecotourism & biodiversity stewardship

Project Value:
US$ 55131 (Small Grant value required: US$ 30798)

This project seeks to reduce dependency on sheep farming and increase income from eco-tourism by assisting the farmer to develop a 65 km mountain bike trail. The MTB trail will build the tourism offering of the district, attracting new tourism segments, increasing the duration of stay, and reducing the dependency of tourism on the flowering season.

The farmer will, as an SLM exchange, commit to declaring 7,000 ha of land as a Protected Environment under the Biodiversity Stewardship Programme.
Reduce livestock numbers through Biodiversity Stewardship.
  1. 65 km of mountain bike trail and associated infrastructure constructed
  2. Product to be on offer commercially to guests Training and employment of two site guides
  3. Completed management plan for the farm
  4. Declaration of the farm as a Protected Environmen


Improving Rangelands Management and Livestock Performance in the Machubeni Area

Project Value:
US$ 158940 (Small Grant value required: US$ 125000)

The project aims to promote sustainable land management (SLM) practices that reduce land degradation and enhance livestock productivity. The SLM measures chosen emphasize strong stakeholder-centred implementation of rotational grazing management thereby reducing the negative impacts of overgrazing. Project implementation will adopt Conservation South Africa’s (CSA) concept of conservation agreements (CA). Conservation agreements are designed to offer direct incentives for natural resource conservation through a negotiated benefit package in return for conservation actions by communities.
  • Sustainable rangeland management practices
  • Linking livestock farmers with markets
  • Forage production from arable land
  • Improved knowledge and skills of households toward livestock and rangeland management
  1. 2,000 ha of rangelands under improved and sustainable community-based management
  2. 500 ha rangelands restored, i.e. gullies closed, Lapesi removed, springs and watering points rehabilitated
  3. 5 signed and operational Conservation Agreements
  4. 150 households trained in rangelands and livestock management
  5. 10 manuals and pamphlets on rangelands and livestock management
  6. ‘Grass-fed’ certification of cattle and sheep
  7. Satellite-based rangelands monitoring tool
  8. Participatory monitoring established, including community resource management plans for all the five participating villages
  • Meat Naturally
  • Olive Leaf Foundation
  • Border Seed Distributors


Rehabilitation of 1000 ha of degraded land in the Lepellane Catchment

Project Value:
Maximum US$ 125000

The project seeks to rehabilitate at least 1000 ha of degraded land in the surrounding areas of Mphanama village. The project is required to implement effective and efficient, best bet conservation approaches and measures to ensure a positive move towards changing the land degradation trajectory within the Olifants landscape.
Bush clearing or thinning of encroachers, management of ialien invasive species, soil stabilisation, soil erosion prevention and control.

Rehabilitation of 1000 ha to include:

882 ha  and 366 ha of two fenced areas surrounding Mphanama village.
Other deliverables to be determined with implementer.
  • EcoRhythm

Contribution to local and global SLM initiatives


Carbon Benefits Project:
follow the link here


South-South Co-operation: conducted training and facilitation in Madagascar and had a technical exchange.


Represent UNDP as a technical partner to AFR100.


Working with WOCAT to develop an SLM Progress Calculator.

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